PCP Symptoms and Warning Signs

PCP Addiction and Abuse – What Is It?

PCP is an illicit, Class A drug under the Misuse of Drug Act (1971). It is a controlled substance, normally synthesised in illegal, underground labs. Because of the poor conditions of production, there is a high chance of toxicity.

It can come in a pill, tablet, liquid or powder form. PCP is naturally bitter, so it is sprayed on leafy items such as mint, parsley or marijuana for taste-improving. Users take it by snorting, injecting or smoking it, depending on the chosen form. In some cases, it’s consumed as a liquid.

A PCP ‘trip’ can last from four to six hours, depending on the concentration or quantity ingested. However, nobody is really sure of the concentration, as most underground labs don’t have a standard calibration. This increases the potential for abuse or overdose. Before long, a frequent abuser will develop tolerance and psychological dependence on the drug.

A psychological (or physical) dependence is when someone cannot function ‘normally’ without taking a particular drug every few hours or so. The discomfort and cravings can be so severe, they look to use the drug immediately.

Types of PCP

PCP (an acronym for Phencyclidine) exists in various forms. Between the 1970s and 1980s, there were about 30 different analogues on the street.

Today, the most common are rolicyclidine, eticyclidine and tenocyclidine. Only a few other variations are ever used.

All the different derivatives of PCP are likely to display similar psychoactive effects to PCP itself. Even though a range of potencies and different mixtures of anaesthetic, stimulant and dissociative effects are evident, it usually depends on the specific drug and its components.

In countries like Australia, USA and New Zealand, these compounds are categorised as controlled substance analogues of PCP and are thereby illicit drugs if produced for human consumption. Other PCP analogues include 3-HO-PCP, 3-MeO-PCMo and 3-MeO-PCMo.

PCP and Its Potential for Abuse

While most hallucinogens are not generally considered addictive, PCP tends to cause tolerance, which is a critical factor in establishing the addictive property of a drug. Many users take PCP for its psychoactive effects and it’s believed by some to be ‘out of this world’. For this reason, the potential for abuse is high.

Taking PCP repeatedly causes the brain cells to become used to its effects. It inhibits the reuptake of neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin, as well as prevents glutamate action by blocking the NMDA receptors. Over time, the brain recognises this feeling and adjusts its chemistry accordingly.

This ‘recognition’ causes tolerance because the abuser can now take more doses of the drug than they used to. Eventually, the brain develops an attachment to PCP and a psychological addiction is formed.

Causes of PCP Abuse

Genetic: People who have a history of addiction in their family have a higher predisposition to become addicted than those who don’t. Scientists are currently studying the potential for the existence of an ‘addiction’ gene.

Biological: It is also believed that a defect in the brain can make it more vulnerable to addictive behaviour. For example, a brain injury that affected certain centres in the pleasure pathway may cause the patient to develop pleasure-seeking behaviours.

Environmental: Where a person lives can influence their habits. If you live in an area with a high production or distribution of illicit drugs, the tendency to use it will, in turn, be greater. For example, many Afghans smoke opium because of the geographical prevalence of poppy plants.

Social: Social factors such as peer pressure or late-night partying habits can cause drug abuse. Your age group, employment status, hanging out with PCP users or regularly attending clubs where PCP is sold all increase the risk of abuse.

PCP Addiction: Does the UK Have a Problem?

PCP is not a major problem in the UK. Its prevalence has waned over the years. In the 70s and 80s, it was identified as a harmful, illicit drug and usage dipped in the 90s. However, PCP made a comeback following the popularity of discreet internet sales.

It is now a drug that is abused at music concerts and nightclubs. PCP is mostly used by people between 16 and 24 years of age. In 2008, over 37,000 people required medical emergency for PCP-related cases in the US. There is potential for abuse in specific parts of the UK.

Addictive Disorders and Addiction Therapy

Addictive disorders are classified into two major groups:

  • Substance abuse/dependence
  • Behavioural abuse

Behavioural abuse includes cases such as gambling, sex addiction and compulsive buying, and hence do not fall within the scope of this subject.

Some substance abuse disorders are believed to be caused by certain influences in a person’s life. For example, a mental health condition (such as depression) may increase a person’s risk of addiction to antidepressants. Another example is alcoholism; alcohol dependence may pave the way to other disorders such as benzodiazepine addiction.

Physicians often use a patient’s inherent disorders to diagnose their addictions and provide the right therapy for treatment. PCP addiction could be indicative of alcoholism, which allows a doctor to treat both problems separately with medication or behavioural therapy.

Signs and Symptoms of PCP Abuse and Addiction: Physical and Psychological

One of the best ways to prevent the ruinous consequences of addiction is by recognising the signs early and by acting quickly. Early detection could mean immediate treatment. You can save the life of a friend or loved one by knowing when they are under the influence of an addictive drug.

The signs and symptoms of PCP addiction manifest in two ways; physically and psychologically. Unless you’re diagnosing yourself, some symptoms may not be evident, because they are felt only by the abuser. In this case, it is helpful to look out for the more visible signs:

  • Sudden changes in behaviour
  • Restlessness, mood swings
  • ‘Euphoria’
  • Sedation; being unusually calm

Symptoms are mainly physiological and health-related.

Physical symptoms:

  • Cravings
  • Increased tolerance
  • Blank, wall-eyed stare (PCP is a dissociative drug and disconnects the user from their surroundings)
  • Incoherent speech
  • Numbness
  • Hypertension
  • Muscle spasms

Psychological symptoms:

  • Amnesia
  • Indecisive behaviour
  • Lack of motivation
  • Hallucinations
  • Paranoia
  • Altered perception of reality
  • Psychosis

Behavioural symptoms:

  • Inability to quit (when you try)
  • Spending more money and time using PCP
  • Inability to keep jobs
  • Difficulty in maintaining relationships, managing family responsibilities
  • Abusing other substances
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Major Effects, Consequences and Treatment

Abusing PCP eventually takes its toll on the body and produces severe adverse effects in some cases. The major effects bore down to health complications, both mentally and physically.

One of the most visible effects is significant weight loss. PCP abusers lack much-needed nutrients to sustain their health and tend to look malnourished as a result. The social effects of addiction include self-ostracisation from family and friends and withdrawal from public gatherings, because of perceived stigma.

Short-term side effects of PCP usage

The severity and longevity of the side-effects of PCP are dependent on the quantity used. When the euphoria wears off, users start feeling the unpleasant effects.

The immediate side-effects of using PCP:

  • Anxiety
  • Blurred vision
  • Seizures
  • Depression
  • Hallucinations
  • Psychosis
  • Thoughts of self-harm and suicide
  • Possible coma or death from overdose

Chronic long-term side effects of PCP usage

Unfortunately, the side-effects of PCP can last several years, with some of them becoming untreatable. This can be prevented by acting quickly while abuse is in the early stages.

Typical long-term effects are:

  • Respiratory failure
  • Heart conditions
  • Memory loss
  • Impaired speech
  • Insomnia
  • Analgesia (numbness to pain)
  • Sensory distortion
  • Stroke
  • Death

Besides the mental and physical issues caused by PCP abuse, the relational aspects of a person’s life will suffer too. Family and friends will be affected, as will their career and interactions with society as a whole.

Withdrawal Symptoms

The primary concern in relation to PCP withdrawal is a psychological addiction. PCP is labelled a Class A drug, because of its highly addictive properties. People who use the drug tend to want more of the psychoactive experience and end up abusing it.

Some researchers believe that tolerance is caused by severely fatigued neurons unable to function as usual. What it does is making it impossible to experience that ‘first-time’ effect, so we end up taking more doses of PCP until, finally, an addiction is formed.

A PCP-dependent individual will typically exhibit psychological symptoms when they suddenly discontinue the drug. This is known as ‘withdrawal’ and is usually uncomfortable.

Withdrawal symptoms of PCP dependence include:

  • High body temperature
  • Seizures
  • Muscle breakdown
  • Anxiety
  • Psychosis
  • Agitation
  • Hallucination

Memory loss and depression are long-term withdrawal symptoms that may last months after detoxification. For treatment to occur, you would have to undergo withdrawal. It is a major process of detoxification.

PCP Addiction: Facts and Stats

The previous year showed that for people above 12 y.o., an estimated 0.10% prevalence was reported. For lifetime use, the estimated figure was 2.5%. However, there is a major age difference amongst users of PCP.

In adolescents, individuals between 12 -17y.o. had an estimated prevalence rate of 0.20% in the previous year, and a 0.40% estimated lifetime rate. Young adults aged 18-25 were estimated to have a 0.2% prevalence rate in the past month and a lifetime estimate of 1%.

Older adults, 26 and above, had an estimated previous-year prevalence rate and a lifetime rate of 0.00% and 3.00% respectively.

Co-occurring Disorders

Co-occurring disorders are problems that occur because of or cause substance addiction.

Common examples are:

  • Alcoholism
  • Bipolar disorder
  • Other substance abuse (heroin, benzodiazepine and more)
  • Schizophrenia
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List of addictions to substances

Unfortunately, it is not always enough to use PCP alone, so some people mix the drug with other substances. The combination produces new sensations, but it also brings a new set of problems that make treatment more complicated. Examples include:

  • Heroin addiction
  • Alcohol addiction
  • Inhalants addiction
  • Benzodiazepine addiction
  • Cocaine addiction

Production countries

Although PCP is used worldwide, its major place of production is the US, particularly Southern California. Distribution channels extend from this state to regions such as New York, Maryland, Washington DC and Pennsylvania. The commercial manufacture of PCP stopped officially in the 1960s when it was declared too dangerous for medical use. Its usage is currently limited to veterinary medicine. Australia and New Zealand also produce PCP illicitly.

Street names for PCP

  • Peace pill
  • Angel dust
  • Ozone
  • Rocket fuel
  • Happy Sticks
  • Cliffhanger
  • Hog
  • Trank
  • Peter Pan
  • Goon Dust

PCP Treatment and Therapy Options

Treatment should be carried out quickly to prevent further damage. It begins with a self-commitment toward complete recovery. It is important to choose the right rehabilitation clinic for treatment, as this is a key factor in how well you recover.

There are two types of treatment facilities:

  • Inpatient rehab centre (24-hour live-in care)
  • Outpatient rehab centre (based on convenience/schedule)

Detoxification is the first step and is carried out to ensure that all toxic traces of the drug are expelled from the abuser. After detox, rehabilitation therapy is the next stage of treatment. Depending on the addiction counsellor, therapy may be orthodox; behavioural, motivational interviewing or contingency management for instance. Conversely, it may be alternative; acupuncture, massage therapy, meditation and so on.

When to seek help

If you use PCP and recognise certain symptoms such as cravings or increased tolerance, it is important to seek professional help. If you’re finding it hard to quit, this is also a sign of dependence. Recognising these symptoms in someone you know is also an indication that they need help.

Getting PCP addiction treatment

Before checking into rehab, you’ll be required to detox. This means going through withdrawal first. Although it is usually an unpleasant process, the physicians will administer medication to make you feel better. Detox shouldn’t be undertaken without the supervision of a qualified doctor.

After detox, you’ll be expected to check in to a rehabilitation centre (some rehabs also have detox facilities). It is advisable to book a place in advance because most centres don’t guarantee a room for every walk-in patient.

Best rehabilitation

Treatment is best performed in an accredited rehab facility. This means it has been inspected and endorsed to provide rehabilitation services by the necessary authorities.

Other features to look out for include: the qualification of physicians/counsellors, type of rehab programme, condition and location of the facility, personal comfort and so on.

What next after rehab?

Treatment does not end when you leave rehab. To maintain sobriety, it is important to maintain contact with the support groups you established in rehab, as well as practice the therapeutic techniques you learned.

Building a strong support network outside rehab is key. It will help you through difficult times and prevent relapse. Examples of good support networks include your addiction counsellor, family, trusted friends, recovery group, sponsors and so on.

Sobriety and abstinence

There are abstinence groups aimed at helping former PCP abusers overcome challenges through shared experiences and moral support. These groups meet weekly to teach abstinence methods and offer support.

How to get a loved one into rehab

This can be easy or complicated, depending on the willingness and commitment of the individual. If they are willing, discuss the options of meeting a professional and support them all the way.

For abusers who are in denial, a well-planned, non-confrontational intervention can help. You can request the help of an intervention specialist.

Frequently Asked Questions

Is PCP that addictive?

Yes, it is. The psychoactive and dissociative effects are well-sought after, making PCP a drug with high potential for abuse. Repeated usage can lead to tolerance and dependence. When a person becomes dependent, it is almost impossible to function normally without the drug.

How do I know I am addicted?

Addiction signs are easy to spot through self-awareness. The easiest way to do this is to determine whether you can go without using PCP for up to 36 hours. If you can’t, you are probably dependent. Do you experience withdrawal if you suddenly discontinue usage? How is your mood in general? The answers to these questions can help you establish if you are addicted.

Can PCP be combined with other drugs?

Many PCP users combine the drug with other substances to enhance the psychoactive effect. The danger of this is the increased risk of developing co-occurring disorders such as bipolar disorder, depression disorder and schizophrenia. Common substances mixed with PCP are alcohol, cocaine and benzodiazepines.

Do I need a prescription for PCP?

Since 1960, PCP has been discontinued for medical purposes, except its limited use in veterinary medicine. It is, therefore, illegal to prescribe the drug for anybody. PCP is a Class A drug and under the Misuse of Drug Act (1971), possession can attract up to seven years in prison, a fine or both. Production or sales can get an offender a lifetime sentence in prison.

How fatal is an overdose?

Overdosing on PCP can lead to very dangerous consequences. Symptoms may include agitation, loss of consciousness, hypertension, psychosis, coma, convulsions, and in severe cases, death. It is advisable to call the emergency services immediately.

What is PCP used for in the medical field?

PCP was originally used as an anaesthetic drug for surgery in the 1950s. However, following harmful side-effects, the medical association discontinued its use immediately. The last commercial production was in 1960. Today, it is used sparingly in veterinary medicine. Any doctor who deliberately uses the drug on a human patient could lose their licence or face criminal charges.

How do I know if I am smoking PCP?

Some people lace certain substances (such as marijuana or tobacco) with PCP. Effects include a “bad trip”. You will notice a high body temperature, elevated heartbeat and possible hallucinations. PCP is a dissociative drug, so you might also feel disconnected from your surroundings.

What is the risk of having a “bad trip” on PCP?

The risk is quite high because nobody is sure of the concentration they are taking. Manufacturers mix the drug with all kinds of substances to improve its psychoactive effect. Because it is an unregulated production, there is no standard calibration for concentration. Every milligram or ounce will differ in concentration, so there is a tendency to have a bad trip any time it is consumed.

How can I help someone who has overdosed on PCP?

As an unqualified medic, there is not much you can do except call for emergency help. Before the paramedics arrive, loosen all tight clothing on the affected person and open the windows for ventilation. Find out how much they consumed, as well as their age, weight and other relevant details to help the medics start treatment when they arrive. If they are acting erratically, keep harmful objects out of sight.

How do I ‘come down’ if I’ve taken too much and start hallucinating?

If you are having a bad trip, the best thing to do is seek professional help. Open the windows for fresh air. Call 999 and maybe a trusted friend to accompany you to the hospital. A doctor will be able to administer a counteractive solution.

Why does anyone use PCP?

PCP offers some form of recreation through its psychoactive properties. People looking to experience ‘euphoria’ and the effect of a trip, take the drug at parties and music concerts. Unfortunately, a first trial often leads to further usage.

What happens at rehab?

Rehabilitation is a safe environment for former drug users to receive treatment and learn new ways of life after substance abuse. In addition to receiving therapy from an addiction counsellor, they learn abstinence, build strong support networks and prepare for integration into society as a sober individual.

Does stopping PCP cause withdrawal?

If a person has developed a dependence on PCP, discontinuing its use abruptly will trigger withdrawal symptoms. This is because the brain has become fixated to functioning with the drug in your system. However, if you’re not dependent, you can still stop before it’s too late.

Why is PCP so addictive?

PCP is addictive because of its reaction to the pleasure pathway in the brain. It inhibits the action of glutamate by blocking the NMDA receptors, thus providing the sedative sensation many users feel. This effect encourages continuous usage, and the brain develops tolerance quickly. Tolerance, in turn, leads to addiction.

What happens to an addict’s brain?

MRI scans on the brain of PCP addicts have revealed structural changes, indicating that the drug affects it physically, as well as chemically. The continuous secretion of neurotransmitters causes the nerves to become fatigued, thus reducing its reaction to regular doses of PCP. This alteration causes psychological dependence.

How difficult is it to stay sober?

Ease of sobriety is relative. If you have the right support, it will be easier to overcome temptations and cravings. However, going through sobriety on your own increases the risk of relapse. It is always advisable to maintain a strong support network when you leave rehab.

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