Salvia Addiction and Abuse
Salvia addiction and abuse
In indigenous cultures along the mountain ranges of Southern Mexico, the large green Salvia leaves are used in religious ceremonies, but consumed as recreational drugs in western countries. After a viral video of Miley Cyrus smoking the plant and laughing at the camera emerged in 2010, easily impressed teenagers quickly bought their own supply and started shooting similar videos to post online.
As a recreational drug, it is still relatively new, as the US DEA and other law enforcement agencies only started taking note of Salvia abuse around the mid-2000s. Notably, most of the children in the online videos are surprisingly very young. The effect of the drug lasts from one to two hours and manifests with feelings of giddiness, floating sensation, disorientation and hallucination.
The Medical Director of the Department of Children and Family Service in Los Angeles states that Salvia is not a party drug like other psychoactive substances such as cocaine, meth and Molly. Unlike other illicit substances that produce bursts of energy and frenzied behaviour in users, people who take Salvia are quiet and not active. To amplify the psychedelic effect, some teenagers might combine Salvia with alcohol and other addictive substances.
What is Salvia?
There are over 800 species of Saliva, a member of the Lamiaceae family and the largest genus within it. Also known as Ska Maria Pastora (Sage of the diviners) and Yerba de la Pastora, Salvia divinorum is a plant with psychoactive properties when the leaves are smoked, chewed or drunk as tea. It has compounds with similar effects to opioids that cause hallucination.
Salvia is native to the isolated cloud forest of Sierra Mazateca (of Oaxaca, Mexico), where it thrives in moist, shady areas. It’s similar to mint tea you would have in your kitchen, as the slim, square stems and jagged-edged leaves of Salvia look like any other mint leaves. It is often marketed as a ‘legal high’ in most western countries and as a safe alternative to more potent hallucinogens.
A dangerous aspect of Salvia is the ease of access. Teenagers can go online and buy a starter pack that includes two grams extract of concentration and one ounce of leaves for $66 (plus shipping). Others might find it in their local tobacco shop.
Uses of Salvia
Some researchers claim that Salvia contains anti-addictive compounds that can help if you’re struggling with an addiction to illicit substances such as cocaine, crystal meth, ecstasy and LSD. According to researchers at the University of Kansas, ‘tripping’ on Salvia divinorum helps wean you off addiction. A study of 167 participants at Victoria University, New Zealand, revealed that there are several new anti-addictive compounds in Salvia, without many side effects. Researchers are trying to design a skin patch from the leaves as alternative addiction therapies.
Mazatec shamans believe that hallucinations induced by Salvia help to heal people. Scientists speculate that the drug might be useful as an antidepressant medicine, but currently, there isn’t a sufficient body of research to determine if there are any medical uses for Salvia.
Recreational users consume the plant in several ways; either by chewing the leaves, smoking it like tobacco or through a pipe, as well as brewing the leaves as tea. The effects are longer-lasting when consumed orally. Some US states have legislation in place to control sale and consumption, while others still consider it a ‘legal high’. The availability has made it a popular drug of choice amongst teenage boys.
Salvia might be a drug you’re using to cope with anxiety, stress and acceptance of self. Addiction specialists believe it is a phase triggered by risk factors such as easy access to substances, problems at home or school, the existence of substance use disorder or mental health issues.
Street names that adolescents might use when talking about Salvia include:
- Seer’s sage
- Maria Pastora
- Diviner’s sage
- Ska Pastora
- Magic Mint
- Leaves of Mary
- Purple Sticky
- Lady Salvia
- Leaves of the Shepherdess
- Leave of Prophesy
- Yerba de Maria
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Salvia Addictive Qualities
A dangerous misconception is that hallucinogens aren’t addictive. While some substances like mushrooms, LSD and Salvia are not physically addictive, they are psychologically addictive. When consumed, Salvia activates receptors in the brain that alter thought processes and perception. According to addiction experts DrugAbuse.gov, the effect of Salvia is similar to PCP and might lead to extreme episodes of violence and uncontrollable actions.
As earlier stated, more research needs to be conducted to properly determine the exact compounds in Salvia. Currently, conclusions are being drawn from similar substances and case studies of abuse. Some users engage in dangerous activities, injuring themselves and others whilst under the influence of Salvia. Some researchers believe that Salvia worsens mental health symptoms and might cause psychosis in some users.
In 2006, an NPR study of Salvia noted that most people described the experience as unpleasant, intense and scary. The lack of information about the drug means that you take a huge risk when consuming Salvia, as there is no research-backed information to guide medication, prescription or identify the long-term effects of abusing Salvia.
The Dangers of Salvia Consumption
There are an estimated 1.8 million people who have used Salvia at least once in their lifetime. The short lifespan of one to two hours might trick you into believing that the substance isn’t dangerous, but that isn’t the case. Drugs that stimulate the mind or contain hallucinogenic properties can cause a break from reality, panic attacks, agitation, anxiety, fear and intense feelings of vulnerability.
Salvia alters the neural chemical balance, causing your mind to be mentally unbalanced. This manifests with mental health issues such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (two disorders that are exacerbated when you’re under the influence of Salvia). Dr Peter Addy, a research associate at Yale University, warns that Salvia is intense and any comparison to LSD might be incorrect, because Salvia is harder to categorise.
Some people might feel a sense of spatial disorientation, experience colours in their skin or forget why they participated in the scientific study. Interoception was the most commonly reported feeling; this is the awareness of the body’s physiology without a corresponding awareness of the environment.
According to Living Strong, Salvinorin-A (a compound in Salvia) causes physical impairment. At the height of the drug’s effect, some individuals reported seeing bright lights and others said they were only able to move in one direction. A dangerous aspect of coming down from the ‘high’ is seizure-like symptoms that cause you to thrash around, run into walls or injure yourself.
Short-term Effects of Salvia
Vice magazine referred to Salvia as a uniquely terrifying drug with intense and dizzying effects. The same plant that carries hallucinogenic properties might carry anti-addiction compounds for treating post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and opioid addiction. Most users don’t enjoy using Salvia, but the short duration of its effect, ease of availability, cheap price and ‘high’ explains why it’s a popular choice amongst younger groups.
Salvia is a gateway drug you can use as an easy way to try hallucinogens without experiencing most of the intense side-effects associated with other psychoactive drugs.
Short-term effects of Salvia manifest rapidly and disappear within 30 minutes to an hour after you’ve taken the drug. Short-term effects include:
- Slurred speech
- Lack of coordination
- Changes in visual perception
- Feeling of detachment from reality, where you don’t know what’s real or imagined
- Difficulty Concentrating
- Uncontrolled laughter
- Feeling of uneasiness
- Distortion of time and space
- The sensation of being pulled, stretched, twisted or flipped
- Contact with supernatural entities
- Motor function impairment
Long-term Effects of Salvia
Addiction: While there are no documented cases of anyone seeking addiction treatment for Salvia abuse, it has been compared to other substances like LSD, cocaine, Molly, meth and ecstasy. Over time, you might develop a pattern of repetitive use, as you experience some of the same effects as cocaine, heroin or PCP. The relaxed feeling and ‘high’ induced by Salvia reinforces continued usage.
Mental health issues: There has been an association with induced psychosis and worsened mental health conditions resulting from Salvia consumption. It re-triggers schizophrenia, episodes of panic attacks and borderline personality traits. Subsequently, this can lead to violence, anger, suicidal ideation, depression, uncontrollable crying and angry moods. Mental health issues are serious conditions that require psychotherapy to treat. You’ll need dual diagnosis care in rehab to treat both symptoms of substance use and mental health disorders.
Generally, not much is known about the long-term effects of abusing Salvia. Taking the drug for long periods might lead to psychological dependence. Some scientists believe it leads to dysphoria; a condition characterised by discontent, depression and restlessness.
Effects on the Brain
Like other hallucinogens, Salvia contains an active ingredient (Salvinorin A) that activates opioid receptors in the brain, just like oxycodone and heroin. However, unlike other narcotic-opioids, it does not activate the GABA, serotonin and dopamine neurotransmitters associated with feelings of pleasure and euphoria. Salvia alters kappa opioid receptors that control thought and perception, making it unpredictable and dangerous.
Researchers at the US Department of Energy used animals as test subjects to determine that Salvia’s behaviour in both humans and primates have similar effects. The lead author of the study, Jacob Hooker, said it was important to understand how Salvia is abused and the way it affects the human brain. During the study, they watched a PET scan and noticed that a peak concentration of Salvinorin A in the brain worked 10 times faster than the rate at which cocaine enters the brain. The effect is an immediate ‘high’ that fades within 30 minutes after ingestion.
High concentrations were found in the parts of the brain that controlled vision and motor function (the visual cortex and cerebellum, respectively). The average human brain requires 10 micrograms of Salvia to experience its psychoactive effects. According to Hooker, the unique quality of rapid onset and short duration of effects is the major draw for most teenage substance users.
Even taken in small portions, Salvinorin A can produce a ‘high’ effect. Taking 200-500 micrograms is the normal dose, but anything higher could leave you in an extremely agitated state. Currently, there is insufficient information about Salvia, which is probably because it is not listed under the Controlled Substances Act and there is no clarity as to whether taking higher doses leads to overdose or enhances the ‘high’ experience.
Nevertheless, there are reports of some users experiencing prolonged psychotic episodes, although studies haven’t verified the possibility of Salvia overdose. Animal studies show low toxicity in Salvia, but little research has been conducted to determine chronic or acute toxicity in humans.
Subsequently, Salvia doesn’t cause overdoses like heroin, methamphetamine and other such substances. The most dangerous side effect of Salvia abuse includes lack of coordination, slurred speech, worsened mental health condition and dizziness. Yet, it is important to avoid taking high doses of the drug, as each individual has a different reaction and experience under the influence of hallucinogens. The side effect you experience is more intense when you take higher doses. Mental health issues also complicate the effect of the drug in your brain.
How to Spot Salvia Abuse
An increasing number of recreational users are turning to ‘legal highs’ as safer, less addictive alternatives to controlled substances. The US Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) lists Salvia as a drug of concern, even though it doesn’t have any medical uses and isn’t a controlled substance. Most US states have laws regulating the sale and consumption of Salvia, although it’s easy to buy online. The National Drug Information Centre states that Salvia is a drug of choice amongst young adults aged 18-25 and children aged 12-17.
Signs of Salvia abuse include:
- Unpredictable behaviour and outbursts of violence
- Mood swings
- Building tolerance by taking larger doses of Salvia
- A drop in productivity at work or school
- Poor physical hygiene, as interest in appearance wanes
- Difficulty Concentrating
- Combining Salvia with other substances to increase the ‘high’ effect.
- Withdrawal from social circles and family in favour of drug use
- Change in appetite and sleeping patterns
- Increased risky behaviour (causing injuries to self and accidents)
- Perception of bright colours and lights
- Uncontrolled laughter
- Poor control of motor functions
- Feelings of depression and anxiety
Salvia Addiction Statistics
- Figures from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) revealed that almost 5.1 million Americans have experimented with Salvia.
- A study published by NIDA reports that roughly 2% of Americans in high school abused Salvia in 2014.
- Men are more prone to Salvia abuse than women.
- Roughly 3% of the 18-25 age group have used Salvia, according to a New York Times article.
- 75,000 to 100,000 people abuse Salvia every year.
- There are hundreds of videos on YouTube, showing teenagers using Salvia. Most have gone viral, attracting millions of views. Miley Cyrus’s original video has almost four million views alone.
- Not all US states have laws that regulate the sale and distribution of Salvia (currently less than half).
- A survey by Monitoring the Future reports that 16% of all eighth graders, 6% of high school seniors and 4% of sophomores abused Salvia in 2011.
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The Legal Status of Salvia and How It Affects Addiction
Salvia divinorum is legal in most countries, with the exception of those with some form of regulation, such as Belgium, United States, Sweden, Poland, South Korea, Japan, Finland, Brazil, Canada and Spain. A motion raised in the UK parliament to ban Salvia only raised 11 signatures on the first day and 18 on the second. However, when the Psychoactive Substances Act was passed in 2016, it became illegal to sell, import or distribute Salvia in the UK.
Australia has the strictest law for Salvia prohibition, imposing a Schedule 9 regulation (Similar to Class A in the UK and Schedule 1 in the US). While Salvia doesn’t have a schedule under the United States Controlled Substances Act, some states such as Illinois, Virginia, Delaware, Texas, Ohio and Missouri have passed laws regulating its sale and distribution.
National legislation to amend the Controlled Substances Act and include Salvia as a Schedule I substance was opposed by politicians and scientists alike, who argued that such a bill would prevent extensive research that might help researchers discover the full application of the plant.
The legal status of Salvia in many states makes it increasingly popular amongst young recreational users. Addiction to over the counter drugs and ‘legal highs’ is on the increase, because individuals don’t have any difficulty buying these substances. Also, they are cheap to acquire. Compared to cocaine, heroin and meth, it’s an easy ‘high’ to maintain and its rapid onset means that you won’t feel the full effect of the drug after an hour.
Salvia Addiction and Mental Health
Salvinorin-A (the active ingredient in Salvia) triggers memories, visual hallucinations and supernatural experiences, whereby you find it hard to differentiate reality from imagination. Some users report that they felt like they were in two places at once, while others continued to feel an after-glow effect when the drug had worn off. Salvia affects the brain quickly, changing perceptions and impairing motor functions.
On one hand, scientists argue that with the right compound formulation, Salvia could be used to treat mental health issues such as depression, panic disorders and anxiety. On the other hand, higher doses of Salvia only serve to worsen mental health issues and alter brain chemical structure. A McLean Hospital study shows that Salvia increases depression by reducing dopamine levels.
The psychedelic effects of Salvia might also increase symptoms of Schizophrenia and Borderline Personality Disorder. You might feel like you’ve been pulled by an unseen force and remember with clarity events that happened a long time ago. The long-term effects of psychedelic trips include psychosis and PTSD.
Salvia Addiction in Teens
Salvia is often referred to as a ‘YouTube drug’ because of viral videos of young people taking it and displaying symptoms such as slurred speech, dizziness, uncontrolled laughter and impaired motor function. An article in the New York Times revealed that 3% of young adults (especially men) aged 18-25 used Salvia in 2007. YouTube videos of young adults and teenagers are popular, with views of up to 500,000.
Several reasons why young recreational users are attracted to Salvia include:
- Ease of access
- It is a fully natural substance that doesn’t require treatment
- Easy to grow and sell at school, parties, music festivals and concerts
- Cheap to obtain
- Rapid onset of effects
Young people take the drug in different ways:
- You can chew the leaves and experience the ‘high’ within five minutes.
- Smoke it like marijuana; either in a joint, vaporizer or water pipe. The effect is almost immediate, manifesting within 30 seconds.
- You could also extract the liquid or brew it as tea.
Regulations or not, Salvia isn’t meant for consumption by young people. Websites that sell to recreational users do not advertise any warnings about the dangers of abuse. Parents need to be aware of the nicknames for Salvia and look for signs of abuse to ensure their children get help for substance abuse in time. Teenagers need a specialised drug rehab facility with teen-specific treatment, geared towards young adults suffering substance use disorder.
Salvia and Other Drugs
Like most psychoactive drugs, mixing Salvia with addictive substances increases the ‘high’ effect; accelerates addiction timeline; increases the effects of Salvia on the brain; worsens mental health issues; and makes it harder to detox and recover from substance abuse. Some drugs will have a more disastrous impact on your brain than others.
Over the counter medications don’t have any noticeable interactions with Salvia. It’s advisable to not take Salvia with other substances. This might appear safe to the next individual, but your unique physiological makeup might produce a different reaction altogether. Drug experts advise that new users start with small doses if the interaction is not well-known. Due to the paucity of research findings, interactions between Salvia and other substances are not known.
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The stages of Salvia usage vary in intensity and length. It takes about 30 to 60 seconds to feel the effects of the drug, depending on the route of consumption. In the first stage (‘coming up’), you’ll feel the immediate effects of Salvia, during which symptoms include: dilated pupils, erratic behaviour, altered perception, panic attack, increased thinking speed, as well as auditory and visual warping.
The next stage is a known as the ‘two-minute peak’ period, where you’ll lose all sense of surroundings and time. You might twitch uncontrollably, struggle to construct coherent sentences or move your body. Some users report feeling paranoia, agitation, joy and depression.
Currently, there is no research that accurately details a comprehensive timeline of withdrawal from Salvia abuse. The final ‘comedown’ from Salvia takes 30 minutes, depending on your weight and height. You’ll embark on a journey to the unknown when you take Salvia, because of its unpredictable, dangerous and powerful nature. According to research at the John Hopkins School of Medicine, Salvia messes with your mind, without causing significant bodily harm.
Salvia Addiction Treatment
Addiction is a debilitating experience – especially for teenagers who are learning to cope with changing bodies, feelings, thoughts and personality. There’s a noticeable drop in academic performance, loss of participation in social activities, and changes in appetite and behaviour when you’re under the influence of drugs.
When you quit Salvia, you might experience memory issues, stomach upset, headache, mood swings, depression, sleep disturbances and drug cravings. Psychological symptoms might linger beyond a few days, but most should diminish within a week. Tools for treating Salvia dependence include:
Detox: Drug detox is usually recommended if you experience hallucinations longer than 30 minutes. Most rehab centres provide an in-house detox facility, where your individual needs will be met. Detox is required if you combined Salvia with other substances such as alcohol, cocaine and heroin.
Inpatient treatment: Residential treatment is the most comprehensive addiction treatment you can receive. This option is recommended for individuals who have substance use disorder, polydrug use disorder, mental health issues and medical conditions that require medication. Inpatient rehab facilities provide residents with a therapeutic environment that maximises treatment efforts and allows you to focus on making a full recovery from Salvia abuse.
Outpatient treatment: This treatment is recommended for high-functioning individuals who enjoy support from loved ones and have the discipline and motivation to receive treatment from home. Outpatient programmes are designed for individuals who are unable take time off from work or those who can’t afford inpatient treatment. Options here include Intensive Outpatient Programmes (IOP) and Partial Hospitalisation (POP).
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Therapy options for Salvia Addiction
Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT)
MDFT is a family-based therapy programme for teenagers dealing with substance abuse. Topics addressed in therapy include the teenager’s view on drug abuse, emotional regulation, communication patterns among family members, style of parenting and actions that might have driven the teenager to abuse drugs.
Studies have shown that MDFT is effective in reducing delinquency, disruptive school behaviour, reducing drug use, internalised distress and improving relations between family members.
One-on-one therapy will benefit young adults and teenagers who aren’t comfortable in group settings. You’ll work with an addiction specialist to understand why you abused drugs and discover the necessary tools to maintain abstinence from drug abuse. Experts believe that substance abuse is rooted in negative behavioural patterns and changing those patterns will motivate you to stay abstinent from drugs.
Individual therapy could be incorporated into family therapy, early intervention and dual diagnosis treatment. Types of individual therapy include Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, Dialectical Behavioural Therapy, Motivational Interviewing and Contingency Management.
Find a Treatment Centre for Salvia Addiction
Addiction to Salvia is mostly psychological and more users are finding it harder to quit hallucinogen use even when they try. Salvia offers an escape from the harsh problems you might be facing at school, work, home or personal areas of your life. Pre-existing mental health issues such as attention deficit disorder, depression, borderline personality disorder, bipolar disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome and childhood traumas need to be addressed. If they aren’t, Salvia abuse will only worsen symptoms related to these issues.
Rehab centres are equipped with addiction specialists and medical professionals who will help to identify all underlying problems that led you to abuse Salvia. You’ll work with a team of therapists to identify triggers that fueled drug use and develop a coping mechanism to deal with such triggers in a positive manner, without resorting to Salvia abuse.
Help for Salvia Abuse
Addiction impacts on your mood, decision making, impulse, memory and general wellbeing. It affects your relationship with colleagues, family members and friends. If you’re suffering from addiction, it’s extremely difficult to control the amount you take and the frequency of usage.
Addiction programmes will help achieve abstinence and teach you relapse prevention skills. Medically-supervised detox programmes help to remove all traces of Salvia from your body and manage withdrawal effects. Rehab includes counselling and therapy programmes, geared towards helping you recover from substance addiction.
If you or your loved one is suffering from addiction, please call an addiction helpline today and they’ll help you get started on the recovery journey.
What Is Salvia?
Salvia is a naturally growing plant in the Sierra Mazateco region of Oaxaca, Mexico. It is used by Shamans to induce visions and as herbal remedy for headache, anaemia, water retention, diarrhoea and rheumatism. Recreational users abuse Salvia for its hallucinogenic properties.
What are the Medical Uses of Salvia?
Currently, the Food and Drug Administration doesn’t state any medical uses for Salvia. However, there are a small number of scientists that believe the drug could treat addiction and mental health issues such as depression, schizophrenia and panic disorders.
What is Salvia Addiction?
For many years, Salvia has been a teenage fad, popularised by singer Miley Cyrus and glorified by teenagers on YouTube. Males aged 18-25 are the most likely users, but children as young as 12 admit to experimenting with Salvia. Youngsters can buy a vial of extract and an ounce of dried Salvia for $66 plus shipping.
What are the Effects of Salvia?
Salvia activates Kappa Opioid Receptors (KOR) in the brain, causing an altered awareness of time and space, consciousness and motor control. KOR differs from other opioid receptors activated by substances with ‘feel-good’ chemicals. It doesn’t activate serotonin or dopamine receptors and might provide addiction control mechanism to prevent Salvia from becoming a habit-forming activity. Effects include hallucination, uncontrolled laughter, mood swing, violent behaviour, panic, altered perception of reality and feelings of detachment.
How Addictive Is Salvia?
According to DrugAbuse.gov, Salvia is a powerful substance that can make you become uncontrollable and violent. Researchers haven’t released any evidence with regards the addictive nature of Salvia, but err on the side of caution when taking the substance.
Is Salvia Addiction Real?
The National Institute on Drug Abuse for Teens states that there is a need for more studies to determine the addictive properties of Salvia. However, there is no way to tell if users are on the road to addiction or if the fast-acting nature of Salvia prevents addiction from taking hold. Some scientists argue that fast-acting drugs like Salvia reinforce users to take them repeatedly, until it becomes a habit.
What is the Legal Status of Salvia?
Salvia is banned nationally in the UK, Australia and Sweden, amongst other countries. In the US, it doesn’t have a schedule, because scientists fear that this would restrict research into the full potential, uses and effects of the drug. Some US states have their own laws regulating the sale and distribution of Salvia. For example, Maryland, Arkansas, Louisiana and Minnesota list Salvia as an illegal substance. Selling to a minor is considered a misdemeanour in California, but a felony in Florida.
How is Salvia Addiction Treated?
As there are no details about the long-term effects of taking this drug, as well as its addictive properties and associated withdrawal symptoms, it’s hard to treat Salvia dependence and abuse. Doctors at a rehab centre will determine if you need detox and inpatient treatment during intake, based on the quantity of drugs in your system and the possible existence of any mental health issues.
How Is Salvia Used Recreationally?
The most common way to take Salvia is to smoke it like marijuana; either as a blunt, in a pipe or gong. Some recreational users drink it as boiled tea or chew the leaves.
What Drugs Interact with Salvia?
Interactions between Salvia and other substances are not well documented. However, the activation of numerous P450 enzymes was noted, but not explored in herb-drug interactions.
Which people should not take Salvia?
Pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers should not take Salvia. This medication should not be used by individuals with mental health issues either.
What are the Risks of Taking Salvia?
It can be unsafe to take Salvia. Possible risks of consuming this substance include hallucinations, paranoia, slurred speech, nausea, confusion and dizziness.
Does Salvia Show up on Urine Tests?
There are currently few tests that will detect Salvia on a urine test, unless it was specifically to screen for traces of Salvia in your urine. The short duration of the drug means that it leaves your body within two hours after you’ve taken it and won’t be detected by most drug tests. Employers typically look for drugs such as heroin, stimulants, cocaine and cannabinoids.
What is a Salvia Overdose?
In one gram of the real plant, there is 2.5mg of Salvinorin A. A small dose is 0.2mg; a moderate dose 1mg; and an uncomfortable dose 2.5 mg. One gram of 60x extract containing 125mg will get you ‘high’ over 100 times, as one gram of 5x extract containing 12.5 mg is considered a large dose. A drug overdose occurs when you take high amounts of the drug (larger than the recommended dose). However, Salvia doesn’t cause overdose symptoms like other hallucinogens, so it’s’ hard to tell if you can overdose on this substance.
What is Salvia Withdrawal?
Withdrawal occurs when you stop taking Salvia after developing a dependence on the substance. There are few documented cases of withdrawal, with one patient reporting symptoms such as diarrhoea, nausea, gastrointestinal problems and vomiting. Withdrawal symptoms manifested 48 hours after her last Salvia use and detox lasted three days.
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